要稍微更改一下喔 加油 !!
Describe your favorite subject at school. Explain why this subject is your favorite.
My favorite subject at school has always been history. I enjoy history because by learning about people and events in the past, I begin to realize how the world and its people came to be as they are today. For example, to understand why even as a Chinese citizen I cannot go to Hong Kong as freely as I wish, I’d have to know certain historical periods and events. Another reason I enjoy studying history is because I was fortunate to have a number of excellent history instructors throughout my high school years. They never forced me to memorize stuff. Instead, they told us exciting stories and introduced us the greatest minds in human history. They made George Washington or Napoleon vivid persons rather than just historical figures.
Some people prefer outdoor activities such as basketball. Others prefer indoor activities such as yoga. Which would you prefer and why?
Some people prefer indoor activities because they think it's less physically demanding. However, I think outdoor activities like playing basketball with my friends in an open basketball court are much better. First, outdoor activities are often more strenuous and so they can exercise your body more. If you stay indoors to do yoga, it probably consumes less energy than playing football or badminton. Secondly, many outdoor activities are team sports, in which a team of players work together for the same goal, i.e. to win the game. So you are more likely to make new friends and develop interpersonal skills better. Last but not least, you can have more chances to get close with the nature, which means sunshine, fresh air and more space. This is something indoor activities can never provide.
What type of music do you enjoy most? Explain why you enjoy this type of music. Include reasons and details in you explanation.
I enjoy classic rock and roll from the 1960s and 1970s. My favorite bands are The Beatles and The Rolling Stones, but there are dozens of others that I love as well. Not only are the songs from that era extremely catchy and fun, but they kind of transport you to a different time when you listen to them. You feel the rebelliousness in the guitar solos and the yells of the lead singers. You feel the sheer energy of the era, which was spurred on by social events both good and bad. It was just a wild time back then! And listening to the rock music makes everything seem so immediate. No picture of the 1960s and 1970s is complete without the music. I never get tired of it.
Your university is planning to replace paper books and magazines in its library with electronic books. What are the advantages and disadvantages of this plan?
One of the advantages is that it can save a lot of space. Thousands of books could be stored in a single compact electronic device the size of a palm. Another advantage is that it can save a lot of trees from being cut down to make paper for books. However, there are also some disadvantages too. For example, those electronic devices are run by batteries. so it might a bit inconveniet to recharge them all the time. Another disadvantage is that some of the electronic devices are quite expensive so not everyone could afford to buy one.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It's easier to teach children in primary schools than students in universities. Include reasons and details in your explanation.
I don’t agree with this opinion. I think it is more difficult to teach children in primary schools mainly because the discipline is harder to maintain. There may be many distractions for children that will keep them from learning, and they have a much shorter attention span. On the other hand, students in universities are better at self-motivation and discipline. They are also more aware of the importance of utilizing their time productively. There is a sense of urgency because it is all about their future. There are, of course, many distractions for university students as well, but as adults they are expected to know how to handle them.
Should the government spend money on projects which can encourage its citizens to lead a healthier lifestyle?
I agree because the costs of caring for unhealthy individuals are ultimately passed on to citizens. With each claim, the costs of health insurance, doctor’s visits, medicines, surgeries, and long-term care increases. So, if more individuals have an incentive to do preventive health care, less will be spent on avoidable medical care costs. An additional benefit is that preventative healthcare and healthier lifestyles might save lives. For instance, early detection of certain cancers can significantly reduce the risks of losing life or limb. Government funding to encourage healthier lifestyles is worthwhile.
【學校通知】學校改變了寫作課的要求，增加discussion (學生和老師間的，學生和學生間的)。【學生意見】女學生不喜歡：1，好的talker不一定是好的writer; 2，寫作是private的，沒必要討論；3，學生間的討論theory上有用，但是in practice 不一定，有的學生害羞。
The school has made a new requirement for the essay writing class. Students are required to participate in more discussions with their teachers as well as with their classmates. In the conversation, however, the girl does not like this mew requirement. She says that essay writing should be a highly personal and private experience, so there is no need to have discussions. A good talker is not necessarily a good writer, as the girl puts it. Furthermore, the girl says that in practice, such discussion activity might not work effectively, because there will always be students who are too shy to engage in any useful discussions.
The university announced that it’s going to make new class arrangements to meet the growing demand for the contemporary literature course. An additional evening session of the course will be provided and class size will be enlarged. In the conversation, the boy disagrees with this new arrangement. He says that the more students in a class, the less chance for each student to engage in class discussions. Therefore the quality of the learning experience will be greatly reduced. Moreover, he argues that most students are not free in the evening. They have different kinds of social activities to do at night and many have an evening job so they will not be able to attend the evening class.
【學生意見】對話中女生認為這兩個理由都沒有說服力。首先要看書的人可以去圖書館看，不一定非要在宿舍，圖書館很安靜。其次學校很小，去哪裡都可以步行，不行橫穿學校只要30分鐘，況且公車只取消幾個小時而已，no big deal 然後題目是女生的觀點理由是什麼。
The student letter complains about the school’s upcoming entertainment event. It argues that students who are studying for their final exams will be disturbed by the noise, and the suspension of bus service during this event will also cause inconvenience to the students. In the conversation, however, the girl does not share the same view. She says that for those who want a quiet environment to study, they can do so at the school library. Furthermore, the school campus is not that big. You can walk across the campus in less than 30 minutes. Plus the bus service is only suspended for 30 minutes. It’s not a big deal.
【名詞解釋】token reward 可以有效地刺激學生學習。 【教授舉例】聽力講座裡，教授說了這種方法很有效，回顧自己經驗，給了兩個例子：1，如果要學生聽話，可以給多時間玩，結果不太有效；2，接著教授給學生 wood coin，學生可以攢著，到最後可以優先使用電腦等等，這樣促進了學生學習。
The reading passage introduces a term called token reward, which is an effective discipline tool in the classroom to reward students with desirable behaviors. The professor gives the example of a class he once taught, which had a few unruly and noisy kids. So he rewarded the other quiet kids with 15 munities extra time to play on the playground. However, some kids just didn’t care about going out to play. They just liked to draw in the classroom. So the professor devised another reward system in which he rewarded good kids with wood coins. The kids could earn enough coins to exchange for some types of priority, like using the computer first. This way, all the kids in the class were motivated and their behaviors were improved.
“Behavior exposure” is a technique often used to help children overcome fear and rebuild confidence by exposing children to the people or objects that they are afraid of. The professor further illustrates this term by using his own son Tommy as an example. Tommy was afraid of playing with other kids when his family had just moved to a new town in LA. To help Tommy overcome this fear, the professor asked him to buy an ice cream but wanted him to say hi to the kids on his way to the ice cream store. Tommy did so, and he also said hello to the kids on his way back. After this experience, Tommy was not afraid of kids in the new neighborhood any more, and he even asked to play with them.
【名詞解釋】Aggressive recruiting即商家在推廣期間給與顧客一些實惠，積累顧客，推廣期過後開始收費增加收入。【講座例子】lecture舉了一個gym的例子在說明這種策略的有效性。具體是，gym在推廣期讓消費者免費獲得健身指導，一個月以後取消免費政策，結果大部分人都繼續使用該服務，於是增加了gym的customer basis，是有效的。
Aggressive recruiting is a technique used by businesses to attract new customers. The lecture gives the example of a gym which wanted to recruit new members. In the first month, the gym offered free personal training service to its potential customers, like how to use the equipment at the gym or explaining the best way to exercise and figuring out individual training programs for each client. However, after one month, the gym cancelled the free promotion and started charging customers if they still needed the service. It turned out that most customers were willing to pay to continue their training at the gym. This proved to be an effective strategy to expand the gym’s customer base.
【學生困難】一女子上陶藝課，結果作業在deadline兩天前被她摔成3塊了。【解決方案】她覺得（1）黏起來，但怕老師發現，因為她不想得普通的分數（也可能是ask for an extension, pardon moi）（2）重做。但是她怕來不及，而且別的課要期末考試。
The girl is taking a pottery course, and was doing a pottery making assignment. But she accidently broke the pottery into 3 pieces. She could either glue the pottery back together, or start all over again by making a new one. I would recommend the girl start all over again, because she has already done it once so it won’t be too difficult to make a new one in a short time. On the other hand, if she glues it back, no matter how careful she is, there will always be cracks that can be noticed by the professor, and as a result she may get a very low score. She could look at her first assignment as learning experience and finish a much superior project with her second try.
【學生困難】女生說父母來參加他的畢業典禮，遇到了麻煩：他們從比較遠的地方來需要找地方住下，但學校附近的hotel都book滿了。【解決方案】 solution1：去她的公寓住，但她的公寓非常小，需要rearrange，她要睡沙發了。Solution2：去遠一點的hotel住，但缺點是離 學校開車20分鐘，需要租車，成本比較高。
The girl’s parents are coming to her school to attend her graduation ceremony, but she can’t find a place for them to live because all the hotels around the school are fully booked. So she could either ask her parent to live with her in her school apartment, or she could book a hotel for her parents that is about 20 minutes away from the school by car. I would recommend that the girl and her parents stay together in the girl’s apartment. Although her apartment is small, she can quickly rearrange it to make room for her mom and dad, just for one or two nights. On the other hand, if her parents live in the hotel that is quite a long way from school, they would probably have to rent a car and the cost would be too high.
【學生困難】女生要在校報發表一篇paper，但文章寫得too long to publish。【解決方案】男編輯給她兩個方案：
方案1：cut off the paper, and make it shorter就能立即發表了。但女生覺得每個部分都很重要，不願意cut，要弄短就只能Summarize了。
The girl wants to publish a paper in the school newspaper, but the editor feels that the paper is too long, so he suggests that the girl either cut it short or publish it later in the summer issue. I would recommend the girl to take the first option. If she can summarize the paper into a shorter version, she can have it published soon for everyone to see; however, if she waits until summer, most students and professors would be away from school so they won’t be able to see and appreciate the girl’s work. Furthermore, I don’t think the girl needs to worry too much about her paper being cut short. She can carefully make the revisions herself so that the most valuable or interesting part of the paper is unchanged.
The lecture talks about how birds make preparation and self-adjustment before they start migration. First, some birds may experience physical change. For example, to prepare for long distance flight, migrating birds have to store up sufficient amount of energy sustain their flight and to avoid the times they have to stop over for rest. So they would eat a lot more than they usually do to reserve energy in the form of body fat. The second change is behavioral change. During migration journeys, some birds that usually live on their own begin to act more socially. They form into a group so they can better protect themselves as a whole from predators which they may encounter during their migrating journeys.
【講課要點】不能自身移動的海底sea bottom動物dwellers（居民）獲得食物的方法，有兩種：第一種：active method。舉例：海葵sea anemone偽裝成植物，寄生在其他動物身上，釋放毒液，使遊到附近的動物paralyzed，然後抓住它們。第二種：passive method。舉例：牡蠣Oyster不動，坐等海水流把微生物tiny material送到嘴邊。
The lecture explains how immobile marine creatures living on the bottom of the sea capture their food. The first method is active method. For example, the sea anemone looks like a plant which clings itself to other moving sea animals. However, it has tentacles which can release poison to paralyze the prey nearby and then grasp it. The second method is passive method. For example, the oyster does not move on itself, but its shells are slightly open so it can draw in sea water and extract the tiny nutritional food particles that are suspended in the water.
【講座要點】：講猴子在樹上，但是在那裡，水只能在地底下得到。那麼猴子是怎麼得到水支撐生活的。第一個是absorb moisture from food，講了一個hobe的猴子，它們吃的嫩葉子裡面包含了水分，所以它們不用吃水也沒有問題。第二個是喝雨水，一個called spider猴子的，它們用cup like plant來Link在樹上，當有水的時候就用那個cup like plant來接水喝。
The lecture talks about how monkeys obtain and drink water. Two different methods are discussed. The first method is for monkeys to eat food that contains enough moisture. For example, the monkey likes to eat the tender leaves of trees that contain large quantities of moisture, so even if they do not drink water directly, these leaves would provide much of the monkeys’ water requirements. Another method is to drink the water collected and stored in various parts of the plants such as their stems, roots and leaves. For example, the spider monkey would make use of a special plant whose leaves are shaped like a cup. By attaching these cup-like leaves to the tree, spider monkeys would be able to drink the rainwater stored in them when they need more supplies of water.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way to reduce air pollution is for the government to raise the cost of fuel (petrol). 6/28命中
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? An effective leader should try to make others feel that they are part of the decision making process.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to attract good students, a university should spend a lot of money funding social activities.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In the modern world, we should never be impolite to another person.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Students could receive a better, more efficient education if they spend 11 months a year studying.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The best way to truly relax and reduce stress is to spend time alone.